Parolin, Zachary, Megan Curran, Jordan Matsudaira, Jane Waldfogel, and Christopher Wimer. 2020. “Monthly Poverty Rates in the United States during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” p. 9. NY: Center on Poverty & Social Policy at Columbia https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5743308460b5e922a25a6dc7/t/5f87c59e4cd0011fabd38973/1602733471158/COVID-Projecting-Poverty-Monthly-CPSP-2020.pdf; Additional commentary and calculations by DeParle, Jason. 2020. “8 Million Have Slipped into Poverty Since May as Federal Aid Has Dried Up.” New York Times, October 15. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/15/us/politics/federal-aid-poverty-levels.html.