The State of America's Children® 2020

Early Childhood

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The State of America’s Children 2020 – Early Childhood Tables2020-02-19T12:24:58-05:00

Table 17: Enrollment of 4- and 3-Year-Olds in State-Funded Preschool Programs, 2017-2018

Number Percent NIEER Quality Benchmarks Met (Out of 10)a
4-Year-Olds 3-Year-Olds 4-Year-Olds 3-Year-Olds
Alabama 16,051 0 28% 0% 10
Alaska 315 0 3% 0% 3
Arizona 3,323 1,933 4% 2% 3
Arkansas 12,261 7,237 32% 19% 8
California 184,816 57,043 37% 11% 4.3
Colorado 15,324 5,713 23% 8% 5
Connecticut 11,226 3,224 30% 9% 5
Delaware 586 259 5% 2% 7
District of Columbia 7,269 6,063 85% 73% 3
Florida 173,645 0 77% 0% 2
Georgia 80,536 0 61% 0% 8
Hawaii 373 0 2% 0% 7
Idaho n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Illinois 41,622 33,318 27% 22% 8
Indiana n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Iowa 25,902 1,293 65% 3% 7.9
Kansas 14,022 0 36% 0% 4
Kentucky 15,910 5,360 29% 10% 7
Louisiana 18,911 0 31% 0% 8
Maine 5,551 0 42% 0% 9
Maryland 27,588 3,574 38% 5% 7
Massachusetts 21,722 12,408 30% 17% 6.2
Michigan 37,325 0 32% 0% 10
Minnesota 6,964 708 10% 1% 5.5
Mississippi 1,840 0 5% 0% 9
Missouri 1,666 712 2% 1% 8
Montana 265 14 2% <1% 6
Nebraska 8,711 4,239 33% 16% 8
Nevada 1,870 232 5% 1% 6
New Hampshire n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
New Jersey 29,733 20,951 28% 20% 8
New Mexico 8,228 891 31% 3% 9
New York 117,851 3,721 51% 2% 7
North Carolina 28,385 0 23% 0% 8
North Dakota 965 0 9% 0% 2
Ohio 16,176 1,737 11% 1% 5
Oklahoma 39,807 0 74% 0% 9
Oregon 5,848 3,616 12% 8% 7.5
Pennsylvania 19,726 9,984 14% 7% 7
Rhode Island 1080 0 10% 0% 10
South Carolina 27,253 190 46% <1% 7
South Dakota n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Tennessee 18,024 330 22% <1% 7
Texas 198,917 32,568 49% 8% 4
Utah n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Vermont 4,609 3,840 76% 62% 7
Virginia 17,959 0 18% 0% 6
Washington 8,019 4,472 9% 5% 8
West Virginia 13,716 913 67% 5% 9
Wisconsin 46,238 499 68% 1% 3.1
Wyoming n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
United States 1,338,127 227,041 33% 6%

a The National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) defines a state preschool program as one serving 3- and 4- year olds that is funded, controlled, and directed by the state. Its primary focus must be early childhood education and it must offer a group learning experience to children at least two days each a week. It may serve children with disabilities but cannot be primarily designed to serve these children. State-funded preschool may be coordinated and integrated with the child care subsidy system in the state. State supplements for Head Start constitute state preschool if they substantially increase the number of children served and involve some state administrative responsibility. NIEER uses 10 benchmarks to measure the quality of state preschool programs: 1) comprehensive early learning and development standards that are horizontally and vertically aligned, supported, and culturally sensitive; 2) supports for curriculum implementation; 3) teachers with bachelor’s degrees and 4) specialization in early childhood; 5) assistant teachers with child development associate’s or equivalent degrees; 6) at least 15 hours/year of professional development, individualized plans and professional development plans, and coaching for lead and assistant teachers; 7) a maximum class size of 20; 8) child-staff ratios of no more than 10:1; 9) comprehensive vision, hearing, and health screenings; and 10) continuous quality improvement system.

Note: “n/a” means no program.

Source: Friedman-Krauss, Allison et al. 2019. “State of Preschool 2018 Yearbook,” Tables 1 and 2. National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/YB2018_Full-ReportR3wAppendices.pdf.

Table 18: Child Care Costs for Infants, 2018

Cost of Center-Based Care for Infants as a Percent of:
Average Annual Cost for an Infant in Center-Based Care Percent Difference Between Cost of  Infant Center-Based Care and Public Collegea Income for a Poor Family State Median Income for a Single-Parent Family Median Annual Rent
Alabama $7,280 -33.0% 35.0% 35.7% 81.2%
Alaska 11,832 51.3 45.5 32.7 82.2
Arizona 10,822 -6.2 52.1 40.2 92.8
Arkansas 6,443 -26.0 31.0 29.9 75.7
California 16,452 66.7 79.2 56.3 101.0
Colorado 15,600 40.0 75.1 49.5 115.6
Connecticut 15,600 22.3 75.1 49.4 115.8
Delaware 11,371 -10.5 54.7 37.1 88.1
District of Columbia 24,081 191.9 115.9 93.8 140.9
Florida 9,312 46.4 44.8 34.7 72.1
Georgia 8,729 1.7 42.0 34.7 78.5
Hawaii 14,100 30.6 59.0 40.8 78.0
Idaho 8,636 13.8 41.6 36.8 90.9
Illinois 13,762 -1.5 66.2 51.4 120.5
Indiana 12,390 30.6 59.6 52.5 132.0
Iowa 10,743 18.3 51.7 41.6 121.0
Kansas 12,584 38.3 60.6 48.1 130.9
Kentucky 7,440 -30.5 35.8 36.0 87.0
Louisiana 8,580 -10.2 41.3 42.0 86.7
Maine 14,248 39.3 68.6 55.9 146.9
Maryland 15,403 55.6 74.1 39.5 97.9
Massachusetts 20,880 58.2 100.5 69.1 148.3
Michigan 10,287 -23.3 49.5 44.3 104.0
Minnesota 16,120 39.7 77.6 52.7 148.3
Mississippi 5,760 -31.6 27.7 29.3 64.9
Missouri 9,880 14.0 47.5 40.0 105.0
Montana n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Nebraska 12,272 44.2 59.1 46.1 132.3
Nevada 11,107 45.0 53.5 37.7 91.0
New Hampshire 13,044 -20.8 62.8 40.6 103.3
New Jersey 15,600 10.0 75.1 49.4 104.1
New Mexico 9,135 28.1 44.0 41.1 94.1
New York 15,028 83.5 72.3 53.8 104.9
North Carolina 9,254 28.2 44.5 38.4 90.7
North Dakota 9,182 6.0 44.2 33.8 99.5
Ohio 10,009 -7.2 48.2 43.8 109.2
Oklahoma 8,940 2.2 43.0 39.6 97.3
Oregon 13,518 27.4 65.1 53.2 114.0
Pennsylvania 11,560 -21.7 55.6 43.9 108.9
Rhode Island 10,955 -12.6 52.7 40.0 95.4
South Carolina 9,100 -29.7 43.8 39.9 90.7
South Dakota n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Tennessee 9,017 -9.4 43.4 40.2 93.0
Texas 9,864 -4.2 47.5 38.1 86.3
Utah 10,002 43.1 48.1 33.5 87.9
Vermont 12,507 -24.7 60.2 46.5 110.3
Virginia 14,560 7.9 70.1 48.2 104.1
Washington 14,844 52.1 71.4 52.0 110.4
West Virginia 8,029 -3.1 38.6 42.8 98.3
Wisconsin 12,552 38.2 60.4 47.9 128.7
Wyoming 9,100 68.5 43.8 33.7 91.6

a A positive percent (higher than 0) means infant center-based care cost more than public college tuition. A negative percent (lower than 0) means infant center-based care cost less than public college tuition.

Note: “n/a” means data was not reported or not available.

Source: Child Care Aware of America. 2019. “The US and the High Cost of Child Care: An Examination of a Broken System,” Appendices III, XI, XII, XV. https://usa.childcareaware.org/advocacy-public-policy/resources/priceofcare/.

Table 19: Average Monthly Number of Children and Families Served by the Child Care and Development Fund by Race/Ethnicity, FY2018

Number of Families, FY2018 Number of Children, FY2018 Change in Children Served 2006-2018 Percent of Children Who Are:
White Hispanic Black Asian American Indian/ Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander Two or More Races In Unregulated care
Alabama 15,800 27,900 -100 18.9% 1.0% 79.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 1.5% 42.5%
Alaska 2,100 3,000 -1,900 48.5 10.9 8.6 2.6 8.4 2.0 24.2 1.3
Arizona 18,100 27,100 -3,100 59.3 34.3 19.9 0.4 4.7 0.4 15.3 5.1
Arkansas 3,800 4,900 -700 46.6 10.3 40.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 3.5 0.1
California 73,100 107,800 -67,700 69.9 57.5 20.9 5.0 1.6 0.7 1.9 19.9
Colorado 11,800 20,400 4,100 35.5 27.1 10.9 0.6 1.1 0.2 5.8 0.7
Connecticut 10,800 16,200 6,100 30.8 43.7 34.1 1.2 0.3 1.1 8.0 30.8
Delaware 4,600 7,300 -200 34.1 12.7 64.9 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 5.6
District of Columbia 800 1,100 -2,600 11.4 14.4 85.8 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.0
Florida 70,500 99,100 -9,500 43.0 34.6 48.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 3.9 7.3
Georgia 21,700 24,600 -40,000 21.5 4.9 75.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 1.9 0.3
Hawaii 2,200 3,900 -4,700 8.8 9.6 0.9 17.9 0.1 33.9 38.5 71.6
Idaho 4,100 7,100 -2,800 83.9 22.3 6.6 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.4 4.8
Illinois 23,100 41,200 -41,000 17.9 21.0 43.9 1.3 0.2 0.2 3.8 25.6
Indiana 14,500 26,200 -6,600 38.8 10.5 52.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 8.5 21.4
Iowa 10,100 18,100 -1,300 67.6 12.9 19.0 0.6 0.4 0.2 7.7 3.0
Kansas 5,700 10,000 -12,400 57.6 12.1 24.4 0.1 0.6 0.1 14.8 6.7
Kentucky 10,000 18,000 -10,900 58.3 6.4 31.8 0.1 0.0 0.1 3.8 0.7
Louisiana 11,000 17,400 -21,700 21.1 3.0 71.5 0.2 0.6 0.1 6.3 3.5
Maine 2,600 4,100 -1,300 73.2 2.8 11.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 3.6 14.6
Maryland 8,000 13,700 -9,200 12.2 4.6 81.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 5.0 4.7
Massachusetts 18,400 26,700 -5,400 26.8 12.7 16.7 2.3 0.4 0.1 1.9 1.1
Michigan 22,300 39,700 -48,100 41.7 5.3 53.9 0.1 0.7 0.0 1.9 21.4
Minnesota 10,100 20,400 -6,900 31.7 5.1 53.7 1.7 1.3 0.0 7.0 10.8
Mississippi 9,300 16,400 -22,700 15.0 0.9 83.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.9 1.2
Missouri 23,800 35,900 2,300 36.4 9.5 46.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.8 22.5
Montana 2,500 3,700 -1,100 72.2 6.0 2.4 0.2 14.3 0.5 3.6 5.9
Nebraska 5,200 9,500 -3,600 50.4 17.4 27.2 0.5 2.4 0.1 10.0 7.3
Nevada 5,100 8,800 2,800 45.3 29.9 42.6 1.3 0.9 1.3 2.5 32.6
New Hampshire 3,700 5,000 -2,500 69.0 7.6 3.7 0.3 0.3 0.1 2.5 3.9
New Jersey 29,200 43,500 5,600 41.2 41.4 45.0 1.1 0.2 1.0 1.2 1.1
New Mexico 12,000 19,500 -2,100 77.5 73.1 5.0 0.5 6.7 0.4 2.6 8.4
New York 61,100 102,200 -21,500 38.1 29.9 38.2 2.6 0.8 2.2 6.2 27.1
North Carolina 20,000 38,000 -41,900 30.3 4.0 64.5 0.3 3.4 0.0 1.3 0.3
North Dakota 1,800 2,700 -1,300 63.5 6.1 16.5 0.3 12.0 0.6 7.1 14.3
Ohio 26,700 50,300 10,400 30.6 5.7 55.7 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.9 0.0
Oklahoma 16,700 27,700 2,700 56.0 13.9 28.3 0.4 5.3 0.2 9.8 0.0
Oregon 7,400 13,400 -6,800 80.5 26.7 12.0 1.0 2.1 0.6 3.7 26.4
Pennsylvania 58,000 99,700 16,900 31.2 16.9 49.1 1.4 0.1 0.1 2.7 6.1
Rhode Island 4,300 6,500 -600 22.6 13.7 10.3 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.5 2.9
South Carolina 7,300 11,600 -8,100 26.1 3.8 63.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 6.3 7.7
South Dakota 2,300 3,600 -1,300 56.9 4.7 4.8 0.4 24.8 0.3 12.7 11.1
Tennessee 14,400 22,400 -20,100 31.0 2.0 68.7 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.0
Texas 68,600 115,000 -11,200 43.9 41.0 25.9 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.9 0.4
Utah 6,200 11,400 -1,600 21.8 10.1 3.3 0.2 1.3 0.3 0.3 3.5
Vermont 2,400 3,100 -3,700 90.4 2.5 4.0 1.2 0.3 0.1 3.9 0.1
Virginia 10,300 18,000 -9,900 33.9 6.7 63.2 2.0 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.6
Washington 22,300 38,200 -15,000 45.3 29.6 18.8 2.1 3.0 0.9 0.0 0.0
West Virginia 4,900 8,300 -1,000 71.5 2.5 11.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 14.1 0.1
Wisconsin 9,900 16,500 -13,000 22.5 11.7 34.2 0.9 0.8 0.0 5.7 0.0
Wyoming 1,900 3,000 -1,700 80.8 11.8 4.1 0.4 2.3 0.1 0.0 9.2
United Statesa 812,500 1,319,800 -437,900 41.4 23.7 39.7 1.2 1.1 0.6 4.0 10.3

a Counts for the United States exclude U.S. territories and protectorates. Percents include data from territories and protectorates.

Note: Data are preliminary and subject to change. Racial categories (White, Black, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Multi-Racial) include children of Hispanic ethnicity. Percents for racial groups do not add up to 100 percent because of missing data.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2019. ” FY 2018 CCDF Data Tables (Preliminary),” Tables 1, 4, 11, and 12. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-data-tables-preliminary; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008. “FY 2006 CCDF Data Tables (Final),” Table 1. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/ccdf-data-06acf800-final.

Table 20: Child Care Worker Salaries, 2015

Difference between Average Annual Median Wage for Child Care Workers and Parking Lot Attendants
Median Wage for Child Care Workers as a Percentage of:
Average Annual Salary for:
 Child Care Workers Head Start Teachers  Preschool Teachers Kindergarten Teachers Parking Lot Attendants Preschool Teachers Kindergarten Teachers
Alabama $18,210 $23,090 $26,570 $47,820 $18,900 -$690 68.5% 38.1%
Alaska $24,550 $29,881 $36,410 $66,820 $22,820 $1,730 67.4 36.7
Arizona $20,070 $32,027 $23,560 $40,230 $21,800 -$1,730 85.2 49.9
Arkansas $18,290 $27,066 $28,170 $45,390 $19,500 -$1,210 64.9 40.3
California $24,150 $34,156 $31,720 $63,940 $22,020 $2,130 76.1 37.8
Colorado $23,870 $31,255 $27,260 $46,190 $21,710 $2,160 87.6 51.7
Connecticut $22,410 $34,176 $31,620 $71,050 $22,340 $70 70.9 31.5
Delaware $20,690 $29,276 $25,450 $58,540 $20,320 $370 81.3 35.3
District of Columbia $23,010 $68,100 $39,940 $52,010 $19,660 $3,350 57.6 44.2
Florida $19,820 $28,073 $24,240 $45,660 $18,890 $930 81.8 43.4
Georgia $19,050 $27,000 $28,190 $53,840 $19,400 -$350 67.6 35.4
Hawaii $18,860 $34,316 $33,690 $44,350 $20,270 -$1,410 56.0 42.5
Idaho $18,280 $22,000 $21,930 $44,070 $19,010 -$730 83.4 41.5
Illinois $21,830 $32,691 $28,670 $48,710 $22,090 -$260 76.1 44.8
Indiana $19,480 $23,231 $24,530 $44,970 $18,490 $990 79.4 43.3
Iowa $18,480 $29,861 $24,040 $50,030 $20,510 -$2,030 76.9 36.9
Kansas $18,900 $31,680 $24,570 $44,880 $19,380 -$480 76.9 42.1
Kentucky $18,910 $26,316 $37,640 $52,370 $19,010 -$100 50.2 36.1
Louisiana $18,340 $26,739 $39,970 $47,340 $18,870 -$530 45.9 38.7
Maine $21,580 $24,818 $29,620 $49,960 $25,500 -$3,920 72.9 43.2
Maryland $22,120 $34,074 $27,980 $55,900 $19,060 $3,060 79.1 39.6
Massachusetts $24,980 $28,078 $31,580 $67,170 $22,980a $2,000 79.1 37.2
Michigan $19,620 $27,613 $27,740 $52,460 $19,530 $90 70.7 37.4
Minnesota $22,470 $28,192 $32,130 $53,110 $21,620 $850 69.9 42.3
Mississippi $18,140 $21,842 $24,970 $39,800 $18,670 -$530 72.6 45.6
Missouri $18,840 $23,870 $25,070 $45,070 $18,500 $340 75.1 41.8
Montana $19,100 $19,537 $25,900 $44,230 $20,150 -$1,050 73.7 43.2
Nebraska $19,620 $35,545 $31,840 $47,910 $18,810 $810 61.6 41.0
Nevada $21,120 $28,434 $24,640 $48,700 $22,380 -$1,260 85.7 43.4
New Hampshire $21,780 $21,720 $27,510 $51,280 $25,060 -$3,280 79.2 42.5
New Jersey $22,070 $35,468 $35,160 $61,350 $21,150 $920 62.8 36.0
New Mexico $18,920 $28,588 $26,670 $52,870 $21,750 -$2,830 70.9 35.8
New York $25,450 $39,050 $31,100 $60,120 $20,900 $4,550 81.8 42.3
North Carolina $19,650 $26,139 $25,970 $39,930 $21,440 -$1,790 75.7 49.2
North Dakota $19,200 $28,673 $35,410 $44,360 $20,310 -$1,110 54.2 43.3
Ohio $19,860 $24,255 $23,690 $52,470 $19,190 $670 83.8 37.9
Oklahoma $18,520 $28,371 $32,030 $38,750 $20,040 -$1,520 57.8 47.8
Oregon $22,240 $27,065 $27,680 $56,900 $20,760 $1,480 80.3 39.1
Pennsylvania $19,590 $26,908 $25,970 $51,050 $20,890 -$1,300 75.4 38.4
Rhode Island $19,720 $27,739 $32,900 $69,870 $21,470 -$1,750 59.9 28.2
South Carolina $18,370 $23,080 $24,620 $51,150 $22,130 -$3,760 74.6 35.9
South Dakota $19,340 $24,814 $28,710 $38,560 $21,940 -$2,600 67.4 50.2
Tennessee $18,560 $28,363 $23,840 $47,950 $19,510 -$950 77.9 38.7
Texas $18,970 $30,160 $30,990 $50,910 $20,630 -$1,660 61.2 37.3
Utah $19,700 $20,959 $23,030 $43,320 $21,400 -$1,700 85.5 45.5
Vermont $23,400 $26,153 $29,390 $53,080 $21,920 $1,480 79.6 44.1
Virginia $19,510 $30,481 $32,490 $57,100 $20,360 -$850 60.0 34.2
Washington $23,520 $30,241 $27,810 $55,020 $23,180 $340 84.6 42.7
West Virginia $18,890 $31,987 $30,640 $47,880 $20,120 -$1,230 61.7 39.5
Wisconsin $20,410 $29,714 $23,890 $48,700 $20,120 $290 85.4 41.9
Wyoming $20,850 $27,181 $26,130 $56,190 $23,960 -$3,110 79.8 37.1

a Data for parking lot attendants in Massachusetts were not available for 2015 from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2014 data are reflected instead.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Education. 2016. “High-Quality Early Learning Settings Depend on a High-Quality Workforce.” https://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/earlylearning/files/ece-low-compensation-undermines-quality-report-2016.pdf.